Teachers - Introduction
web site on conscientious objectors and alternative service during
the Second World War is designed for use in classrooms across Canada.
It uses original records, also known as primary sources, such as
pictures, tape recordings, movies, letters, journals, and documents
not otherwise available in libraries. The digitization of this unique
material makes it accessible to a wide range of people.
Teachers, students, and others are encouraged to use the content
in the classroom or in other projects and activities of a non-commercial,
Each aspect of the CO experience has a section for teachers. Here
the teacher will find suggestions for classroom activities targeting
a variety of grade levels and social study skills, as well as the
prescribed learning outcomes for social studies as they relate to
This web site is written at a grade 6 level, but can easily be adapted
up or down. Upper elementary children will enjoy the multimedia
presentations and the story of Canada’s COs, while the ethical
and moral dimensions of being a CO will challenge the more advanced
Activities and learning outcomes centre on four social studies skills.
(Taken from Kindergarten to Grade 8 Social Studies: Manitoba Curriculum
Framework of Outcomes available from the Manitoba Education and
1. Active Democratic Citizenship
- make decisions that reflect fairness and equality in their interactions
- use a variety of strategies to resolve conflicts peacefully and
- recognize bias and discrimination and propose solutions
- treat places and objects of historical significance with respect
2. Managing Information and Ideas
- select information from a variety of oral, visual, material, print,
or electronic sources
- organize and record information appropriately
- distinguish between primary and secondary information sources
- create timelines to sequence and represent historical figures,
relationships, or events
3. Critical and Creative Thinking
- plan topics, goals, and methods for historical inquiry and research
- evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of solutions to a problem
- draw conclusions based on research and evidence
- evaluate personal assumptions based on new information and ideas
- distinguish fact from opinion and interpretation
- observe and analyze material and visual evidence for research
- assess the validity of sources
- compare differing accounts of historical events
- compare diverse perspectives in a variety of information sources
- interpret information and ideas in a variety of media
- recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change
as new information is found
- listen to others to understand their perspective
- use language that is respectful of human diversity
- persuasively express differing viewpoints regarding an issue
- elicit and clarify questions and ideas in discussions
- articulate their beliefs and perspectives on issues
Take, for example, the Manitoba curricula for grade 6 and senior
3 (grade 11), the two grades where students must take Canadian history.
In grade six, the Manitoba social studies unit is Canada: A Country
of Change (1867 to Present). This unit explores Canada’s changing
character, including the role of immigration and the evolving relationship
between Canadian peoples and the Canadian government. Through this,
students will learn about issues of citizenship, identity, and diversity.
The differences between COs and Canadian society provide abundant
In senior three, Manitoba students study the Social and Political
History of Canada. Here students learn about the diversity and the
role of immigration in the development of Canada, cultural stereotyping
and social prejudice, individual rights and responsibilities as
they relate to the government and the community, and the unique
pattern of local histories as well as their interconnectedness to
national and international events. Used as a case study, the history
of COs allows the student to explore many of these themes.
Teachers: If you use the site, please let us know how you found
out about the site, what you liked, and any suggestions for improvements.
Also, please write us if you have additional activities or ideas
for the curriculum section.
This site was created by the Mennonite
Heritage Centre (Winnipeg, Canada) in partnership with Mennonite
Church Canada. The Canadian
Council of Archives provided funding for the project, as did
the Manitoba Mennonite Historical
Society and Mennonite Central Committee
Canada; the Mennonite Heritage Centre provided significant support
through in-kind services.
of this web site may be used elsewhere providing specific credit
is given to the Mennonite Heritage Centre. A few preferred statements
“This material provided by the Mennonite Heritage Centre,
Canada. © 2004”
“Source: Mennonite Heritage Centre, Winnipeg, Canada. ©
“Photo Credit: Mennonite Heritage Centre, Winnipeg, Canada.
also ask that you contact us when you have used this site in formal
or informal ways. This can be done at our "Respond"
© Mennonite Heritage Centre, Winnipeg, Canada.