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Abbreviations were used in the text for these three commonly cited resources.


ASM: John C. Klassen and Jake Krueger, eds. ASM: Alternative Service Memoirs (1995).


ASP: A.J. Klassen, ed. Alternative Service for Peace in Canada during World War II, 1941-1946 (Abbotsford, BC: Mennonite Central Committee, 1998).


TTbP: Lawrence Klippenstein, ed. That There Be Peace: Mennonites in Canada and World War II (Winnipeg, Manitoba: The Manitoba CO Reunion Committee, 1979).

Below are some helpful resources used in researching this website.

Barrett, Lois, The Vision and the Reality: The Story of Home Missions in the General Conference Mennonite Church (Newton, Kansas: Faith and Life Press, 1983).

Bergen, John J., “The World Wars and Education Among Mennonites in Canada,” in Journal of Mennonite Studies, V.8, 1990.

Dyck, Cornelius J., An Introduction to Mennonite History: A Popular History of the Anabaptists and the Mennonites, 3rd ed. (Scottsdale, Pennsylvania: Herald Press, 1993).

Ens, Adolf, Subjects or Citizens? The Mennonite Experience in Canada, 1870-1925 (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1994).

Epp, Frank H., Mennonites in Canada, 1786-1920: The History of a Separate People Volume 1 of Mennonites in Canada (Toronto: Macmillan Co., 1974).


Epp, Frank H., Mennonites in Canada, 1920-1940: A People's Struggle for Survival Volume 2 of Mennonites in Canada (Toronto: Macmillan Co., 1982).

Fransen, David, “Canadian Mennonites and Conscientious Objectors in World War II” MA Thesis, University of Waterloo, 1977.

Friesen, Jacob, The Road Unknown (Gladstone, Manitoba: Jacob Friesen, 1993).

Gerbrandt, Henry J., En Route: Hinjawäajis (Winnipeg, Manitoba: CMBC Publications, 1994).

Gingrich, Melvin, Service for Peace: A History of Mennonite Civilian Public Service (Akron, Pennsylvania: The Mennonite Central Committee, 1949).

Granatstein, J.L. and J.M. Hitsman, Broken Promises: A History of Conscription in Canada (Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1985).

Harder, Anne, The Vauxhall Mennonite Church (Calgary, AB: Mennonite Historical Society of Alberta, 2001).

Janzen, William, Limits on Liberty: The Expereince of Mennonite, Hutterite, and Doukhobor Communities in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990).

Janzen, William and Frances Greaser, Sam Martin Went to Prison: The Story of Conscientious Objection and Canadian Military Service (Winnipeg, Manitoba: Kindred Press, 1990).

Kaufmann, Jess, A Vision and a Legacy: The Story of Mennonite Camping, 1920-1980 (Newton, Kansas: Faith and Life Press, 1984).

Kliewer, Victor D. ed., Mennonite Peace Perspectives from Essex and Kent (Leamington, Ontario: Essex-Kent Mennonite Historical Association, 2001).

Klippenstein, Lawrence and Julius G. Toews, eds. Mennonite Memories: Settling in Western Canada (Winnipeg, Manitoba: Centennial Publications, 1977).

Morton, Desmond, A Military History of Canada: From Champlain to Kosovo 4th ed. (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Inc., 1999).

Neufeld, Peter Lorenz, Mennonites at War: A Double-Edged Sword; Canadian Mennonites in World War II (Deloraine, Manitoba: DTS Publishing, 1997).

Neufeld, Vernon H., ed. If We Can Love: The Mennonite Mental Health Story (Newton: Faith and Life Press, 1983).


Oyer, John S. and Robert S. Kreider, Mirror of the Martyrs: Stories of Courage, inspiringly retold, of 16th century Anabaptists who gave their lives for their faith (Intercourse, Pennsylvania: Good Books, 1990).


Reddig, Ken, "Manitoba Mennonites and the Winnipeg Mobilization Board in World War II," MA Thesis, University of Manitoba, 1989.

Regehr, T.D., Mennonites in Canada, 1939-1970: A People Transformed Volume 3 of Mennonites in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996).

Reimer, David P., Experiences of the Mennonites of Canada during the Second World War, 1939-1945 (Altona, Manitoba: D.W. Friesen, 1951).

Toews, J.A., Alternative Service in Canada during World War II (Winnipeg, Manitoba: Canadian Conference of the Mennonite Brethren Church, 1959).

Unger, Brian, “A Struggle with Conscience: Canadian Mennonites and Alternative Service During World War II,” MA Thesis, University of Toronto , 1990.

Unrau, Jake, with Johann D. Funk, Living in the Way: The Pilgrimage of Jake and Trudie Unrau (Winnipeg, Manitoba: CMBC Publications, 1996).

Waiser, Bill, Park Prisoners: the Untold Story of Western Canada's National Parks, 1915-1946 (Saskatoon: Fifth House Publishers, 1995).

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